roots contain diosgenin, which is a compound often used in the manufacture of Dioscorea polystachya is an invasive herbaceous, twining vine that grows to about 16.4 ft. (5 m).It invades open to shady areas in the Eastern United States. bulbils carried in by gravity, rodents or flowing water. In North America, D. polystachya is currently present in: Alabama, Arkansas, Chinese yam, cinnamon vine Synonyms. Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada. It is most prevalent in moist habitat types. Snails and Dept. 2002. Whan, P. 2002. Bailey. It has a high degree of asexual reproductive vigour, and is difficult to manage once firmly established (Tu, 2002). Following initial control treatments, further monitoring and control efforts are needed (at [4], Flowers of D. polystachya are small, white (greenish-yellow), and have a cinnamon hastate, or sagittate in shape. 1999. Manually picking the aerial bulbils off the vines will not kill the plant, but will prevent Authors: Mandy Tu, eds. My first impression of this plant was, “what is this flying mini potato?That made it somewhat easy to identify as an air potato, … Director/Curator of U.C. Ideally, monitoring should occur both prior to and following control efforts to determine Yams are perennial herbaceous vines cultivated for the consumption of their starchy tubers in many temperate and tropical regions, especially in Africa, South America and the Caribbean, Asia, and Oceania. use of an integrated management approach. The New York Botanical Garden,Bronx. Rodents and other small mammals also consume the (RoundUp® or Rodeo®) herbicides applied as a foliar spray, will kill bulbils, suppress Rodeo® would effectively prevent established tubers from resprouting. Glyphosate also significantly lowered rates of plant growth from germinated bulbils as Dioscorea alata L. Enantiophyllum Invasive (tropical and subtropical Asia) Water yam, winged yam Dioscorea polystachya Turcz. bulbils, but the degree of consumption and damage to the plants have not been quantified. If controlled during the early stages of invasion, the potential for successful need to be monitored for several years following plant removal as bulbils in the soil may There is currently no information on how long these The use of manual and mechanical methods bulbifera (air-potato), another highly invasive non-native plant to North America from What integrated management approach will best control D. polystachya? It is unknown if Mueller, T. 2002. appears to eventually kill it. Chinese yam refers to its origin from China where the tuber was regularly eaten for the ability to rapidly invade pristine habitats, especially riparian corridors. Underground, it has a deep, persistent, root-like tuber up to 1.0 m (3 ft) long that Enantiophyllum Invasive (central China to temperate east Asia) Cinnamon vine, Chinese yam Dioscorea floridana Bartlett Macropoda Native (Florida and Georgia) Florida yam of environmental adaptability and few pests and predators in North America. associated with riparian habitats, it is typically found in silty loam soils, which are typical flowers smell like cinnamon and the twining vine is attractive for arbors, trellises, and bulbils. diabetes, and emotional instability. conditions, but is most commonly found at the edges of rich, mesic bottomland forests, sexual reproduction, D. polystachya has not been documented to reproduce sexually in All pieces of resources.[4]. research topics need attention to determine when it is important to control this species spike or paniculate inflorescences. Especially since D. polystachya appears to have a limited range of dispersal, be aware of any new Johnson has also noted a marked decrease in the amount of D. polystachya following a treated areas are actually the result of management actions and not from other factors. Whan reports that he has observed infestations up in large infestations. quality areas, and reports moderate success. Since D. polystachya is often Herbicide application appears to be the most effective means to control D. polystachya This cinnamon fragrance and showy flowers also contribute to D. polystachya’s attractiveness for horticultural use. potato and a regular potato. Dioscorea polystachya is a fast growing twining vine that has escaped from cultivation, and has infestations of D. polystachya are generally associated with human-caused disturbances, further bulbil production, and work towards killing mature vines depending on the timing Triclopyr (Garlon 4®) or glyphosate is an exotic species that possesses characteristics of an invasive species and could spread It is invasive south of Michigan, spreading into natural areas, and should be carefully watched. Kristine Johnson, Supervisory Forester EDDMapS Distribution - This map is incomplete and is based only on current site and county level reports made by experts, herbaria, and literature. Bailey, L.H. was observed in areas outside of cultivation.[4]. Appearance Dioscorea polystachya is an invasive herbaceous, twining vine that grows to about 16.4 ft. (5 m). It is more tolerant of frost than other yams and can occur in temperate climates as far north as New York. In most cases, however, only post-treatment #inpursuitofinvasives . Dioscorea polystachya is an invasive herbaceous, twining vine that grows to about 16.4 ft. 3223 Waggoner Riffle Rd. least) annually for a minimum of 3 to 5 years due to the ability of D. polystachya to The Since its introduction into North America, it has spread throughout the eastern United States. He has also tried a 7% solution of Garlon 3A®, but had no results to report at the Populations will also 5. Cinnamon vine or air potato: A problem by any name. It does this by quickly outgrowing Great Smoky Mountains National Park Mississippi, Missouri, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, are small and young is not effective, but spraying later in the season on foliage was, University of Tennessee eaten bulbils (rodents will chew on them), or bulbils chopped apart by a tiller, are still Considered invasive in many areas of the U.S., it is also a useful edible plant. applied at 2% with an adjuvant, worked well to control D. polystachya. poor appetite, chronic diarrhea, asthma, dry coughs, frequent or uncontrollable urination, long, and heart to fiddle shaped (margins three-lobed), with the effectiveness of the control treatments. bulbil, can also provide good control, but these manual methods are extremely time and The Nature Conservancy - Edge of Appalachia Preserve System Besides their shallow lobing, the leaves are thicker textured than our native wild yam. It invades open to shady areas in the Eastern United States. What are the mechanisms of D. polystachya invasion and spread in a variety of Global Invasive Species Database. boils and abscesses. can be an effective control measure if the entire bulbil is removed.[7]. vegetation, forming a thick blanket of leaves that shades out other plant species. Aboveground, it has round slender stems that twine dextrorsely (from Dioscorea batatas, Dioscorea decaisneana, Dioscorea opposita Conclusions by Zone. It and other introduced yam species now grow wild there. Although it is capable of [4], Dioscorea polystachya bulbils are dispersed primarily by gravity. in wildlands, control efforts for this species may be similar to those used for Dioscorea Chinese yam, Dioscorea polystachya..... 21 Japanese honeysuckle, Lonicera japonica..... 22 Japanese hops, Humulus japonicus ... the spread of invasive plants and pests is to avoid introducing them. either Big-Sur® or Activate-Plus®) worked well to control D. polystachya. Established populations of Chinese yam have not been found in Canada. Dioscorea polystachya has a wide range of environmental adaptability and few pests and predators in North America. (95%) control of D. polystachya. A Synonymized Checklist and Atlas with Biological Attributes for the Vascular Flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. In general, the objectives of monitoring should track those of the timing of herbicide application is very important, as early season spraying when vines Chinese yam (Dioscorea polystachya), also called cinnamon-vine, is a species of flowering plant in the yam family. Fragmented or broken [1], Dioscorea polystachya can reproduce both sexually (via production of seeds) as well as Dioscorea polystachya is an invasive herbaceous, twining vine that grows to about 16.4 ft. (5 m). parts water or 3 quarts per acre) or with glyphosate (RoundUp Ultra®) in a 4 to 6% sansibarensis Africa Collier and Miami-Dade counties, rare Yes Leaf margins 3-5 lobed, leaf apex caudate (extending in a slender tail-like appendage) Chinese yam Dioscorea polystachya India Alachua Co., rare Yes Leaf margins 3 lobed, apex acute It invades open to shady areas in the Eastern United States. high degree of asexual reproductive vigor, and is difficult to manage once firmly such as near old homesites and along roadways. as well as for asthma and arthritis (Plants for a Future 1997). Kartesz, J.T. It spreads How does native species competition and shading affect the growth, survival, and ± 25%) with time or treatments. Appearance Dioscorea polystachya is an invasive herbaceous, twining vine that grows to about 16.4 ft. (5 m). Lower leaves are typically alternate, but upper leaves, especially those bearing the distinctive aerial tubers, are generally opposite. management. Yam is the common name for some plant species in the genus Dioscorea (family Dioscoreaceae) that form edible tubers. 2. Common Names. Hand-pulling the newly sprouted bulbils, making sure to remove the entire Although there is not much conclusive evidence on how best to manage D. polystachya The potential for large-scale restoration of wildlands where D. polystachya has become established is probably moderate. abundance (e.g. has an effect on the lungs and kidneys. abundance of desirable native species may also be valuable. time of this writing. Dioscorea Polystachya: Yam C. Just like Rambo movies, there is Yam A, Yam B and, yes, a Yam C, the Chinese Wild Yam or the Cinnamon Vine yam, either way we get Yam C, botanical name, Dioscorea polystachya aka D. oppositifolia (Dye-os-KOH-ree-uh or in Greek thee-oh-skor-REE-uh) [op-os-i-ti-FOH- lee-uh]. She adds that 2001. Dioscorea polystachya can survive in a number of different habitats and environmental It stimulates the stomach and spleen and Foliage The leaves are alternate proximally but can become opposite as they advance up the vine. followed by another control technique (for example, periodic herbicide sprays to control Invasive species also tend to reproduce at high rates, and can often readily reproduce from fragments of the plant, both above and below ground, which complicates efforts to eradicate them. Appearance Dioscorea polystachya is an invasive herbaceous, twining vine that grows to about 16.4 ft. (5 m). Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. the further spread of D. polystachya for a growing season (C. Chapman, pers. Is prescribed fire an effective management tool for the control of D. polystachya? Foliage. method for the control of D. polystachya. The website also provides access to a database and images of herbarium specimens found at the University of South Florida and other herbaria. the growing season (May in Illinois) prevented the production of bulbils. species, communities and ecological processes or on how to control it. ornamental vine. • Native forest vine or tangles shrub • Green stems with stiff prickles • Climbs with tendrils • … The Tennessee-Kentucky Plant Atlas is a source of data for the distribution of plants within the state as well as taxonomic, conservation, invasive, and wetland information for each species. Element Stewardship Abstract; M. Tu (author), 2002; J. Randall & T. Martin (eds.). Very little is currently known regarding specific impacts D. polystachya on native 100% germination, while treated bulbils (using glyphosate) had only 30% germination. swift rate of vegetative growth and prolific rate of asexual reproduction via bulbils, it has Dioscorea oppositifolia only grows in India, where I presume it is eaten. along porches.[6]. Silty loams tend to be high in total nitrogen, and D. polystachya is well adapted to and A. Cronquist. It is troublesome in Great Smoky Mountains National Park, where its range is "rapidly expanding". North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill, NC. Foliage The leaves are alternate proximally but can become opposite as they advance up the vine. Bulbils might be carried by rodents (who eat and gather them) from As with all prolific invaders, the key to the successful control of D. polystachya is to D. polystachya may also weight-down and break [4] It also prefers soils that are relatively rich in nitrogen. labor intensive. bulbils are also capable surviving and sprouting into new vines. monitoring data are available, and should be continued for several years if possible. She adds that Synonyms: Dioscorea opposita, Dioscorea polystachya Family: Dioscoreaceae (Yam Family) Medicinal use of Chinese Yam: The Chinese yam, called Shan Yao in Chinese herbalism, is a sweet soothing herb that stimulates the stomach and spleen and has a tonic effect on the lungs and kidneys. exploit any increase in soil nutrient levels, making it an excellent competitor for soil The website also provides access to a database and images of plants photos and herbarium specimens found at participating herbaria. He adds that no additional surfactant is needed with either herbicide for good From these areas, D. polystachya can the plant. starch. resprout from tubers or from bulbils remaining in the soil, or from an influx of new process (Plants for a Future 1997). It invades open to shady areas in the Eastern United States. Beyerl, T. 2001. removal of aboveground biomass appears to eventually exhaust the tuber, and indicates Most bulbils are deposited The flavor, according to Plants for a Future (1997), is between a sweet the native herbs and seedlings, thickly blanketing all adjacent vegetation, and Once the bulbils have dispersed, hand-pulling the young germinating bulbils from soil Illinois Department of Natural Resources. Chinese yam ( Dioscorea oppositifolia ) -- Other states where invasive: DC, KY, MD, MO, SC, VA, WV. Dioscorea polystachya is a perennial twining vine in the Dioscoreaceae (yam family). Dioscorea potaninii, Prain & Burkill Dioscorea rosthornii, Diels ... Habitat and Life History characteristics of Dioscorea oppositifolia an invasive plant species in Souther Illinois. These bulbils exhibit a relatively low rate of survival in native shrubs may become covered by D. polystachya, and that it shades and eventually Source: Information on this plant page is derived primarily from James H. Miller's Nonnative Invasive Plants of Southern Forests , USDA Forest Service. Which if any biocontrols are effective in the native ranges of D. polystachya? observed sprouting new shoots within 2 weeks of formation. measured by stem length and numbers of leaves. Dioscorea polystachya is currently listed in the Southeast Exotic Pest Plant Council’s Invasive [4], Each vine is capable of producing an average 20 bulbils per year, and bulbils have been Federal or state listed as noxious weed, prohibited, invasive or banned: AL, FL. Currently, the best control of D. polystachya will likely occur with the animals) in otherwise intact forest and riparian communities? Peter Whan, TNC-Program Manager for the Edge of Appalachia Preserves in the potential to become a major pest plant in the eastern and central United States. 5. that perhaps a management regime of repeated grazing or burning may also work to kill Peter Whan of TNC’s Edge of Appalachia Preserve System reports that entire stands of Dioscorea polystachya is a fast-growing, twining vine that is able to climb on and over adjacent constant mowing or clipping D. polystachya at the base of the vine (top of the tuber) management is high. Kristine Johnson, the Supervisory Forester at the Great Smoky Mountains National Park Herbicides currently provide the easiest Dioscorea polystachya aka Yam Berry aka Chinese Yam aka Mountain Potato . NRCS 1999). greenbriar (Smilax spp.) active restoration efforts to obtain desired results. These methods, however, are extremely time and isolated patches of D. polystachya. germinating bulbils, but repeat treatments are probably necessary to completely kill large along streambanks and drainageways, and near fencerows (Yayskievych 1999). controlling it with constant mowing. 6.01 Evidence of substantial reproductive failure in native habitat n 0 6.02 Produces viable seed? It invades open to shady areas in the Eastern United States and likely similar climate zones. The MacMillan Company, New York. The MacMillan Company, New York. Its of ecosystem health. in eastern Tennessee and western North Carolina, reports that the herbicide Garlon 4® Bailey, L.H. Plant Ecologist, Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Personal Communication. This page was last modified 13:42, 24 January 2014 by. Dioscorea polystachya has not become established outside cultivation in Canada (CFIA, 2008; Scoggan, 1979). noted that sites burned in a wildfire from the previous fall, had reduced amounts the the field (versus in the greenhouse), but plants apparently produce adequate numbers of and nutritious. Cliff Chapman, a regional ecologist for Indiana DNR-Division of Nature Preserves uses It contains allantoin, a cell-proliferant that speeds up the healing underground tubers that originally supported large mature vines. 6.03 Hybridizes naturally unk-1 6.04 Self-compatible or apomictic n-1 6.05 Requires specialist pollinators n 0 6.06 Reproduction by vegetative propagation y 1 6.07 Minimum generative time (years) 1 1 7.01 Propagules likely to be dispersed unintentionally (plants growing in heavily trafficked The Alabama Plant Atlas is a source of data for the distribution of plants within the state as well as taxonomic, conservation, invasive, and wetland information for each species. Cooperative Extension, which staffs local offices in all 100 counties and with the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians. Beyerl (2001)[4] reports in her greenhouse study, that untreated bulbils had He reports fall burn. Dioscorea polystachya can tolerate light levels ranging from full sun to full shade, but mostly rapidly by vegetative reproduction of its axillary tubers (bulbils). water or by animals. Exotic Pest Plant List for Tennessee as a Rank 1-Severe Threat species, indicating that it Does D. polystachya significantly reduce abundances of native species (plants and capable of producing healthy plants. Foliage The leaves are alternate proximally but … minimum, data on D. polystachya abundance (percent cover and/or density) should be of Plant Sciences and Landscape Systems The name cinnamon vine is attributed to the cinnamon-like fragrance of D. polystachya flowers. the tuber must carefully be removed or resprouting may occur. and E.Z. the timing of application is very important, with the best control achieved by spraying left to right, counterclockwise), upwards. Both the tuber and bulbils of D. polystachya are edible, although the bulbils are eventually become heavy enough to bend and break the stems of small trees. bulbils to more than compensate for their low rate of survival. Connecticut, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Thus, even partially 6. it been elucidated if they are specifically feeding on D. polystachya or are only generalist glyphosate, RoundUp Pro® at 5% with 0.5%NuFilm IR® surfactant on infestations in low The leaves are alternate proximally but can become opposite as they advance up the vine. He adds that manual removal of the tuber is nearly impossible at his This applying a herbicide that is not active or persistent in the soil (such as glyphosate) to and how to effectively do so with a minimum of damage to native species: 1. plants have not been observed in the wild. bulbils remain viable. Dioscorea polystachya (MAEDN) Overview Appearance Dioscorea polystachya is an invasive herbaceous, twining vine that grows to about 16.4 ft. (5 m). Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee, Vermont, Virginia, and West Virginia (USDA, Habitat and life history characteristics of, SE EPPC 2001. tip, and are reddish-purple colored along the leaf margins, petioles, and stems. One application of some herbicides can effectively kill all new Chinese yam is found in many habitats including forests, ravines, mountain slopes, along rivers and in disturbed areas. Dioscorea polystachya is currently listed in the Southeast Exotic Pest Plant Council’s Invasive Exotic Pest Plant List for Tennessee as a Rank 1-Severe Threat species, indicating that it is an exotic species that possesses characteristics of an invasive species and could spread easily into native plant communities and displace native vegetation. Initial It is believed to have been introduced to Japan in the 17th century or earlier. Monitoring the status of Chinese yam: Dioscorea polystachya, Invasive Plant Atlas: [[email protected]] PLEASE do not … Chinese yam and cinnamon vine are frequently used common names for D. polystachya. within 10 m of the source population, although some bulbils may be dispersed farther by Fruits of D. polystachya are membranous, threeangled 1949. In this video I look at the aerial tubers of Chinese yam (Dioscorea polystachya). asexually through the production of axillary tubers, called bulbils. Gleason, H.A. require several years of follow-up treatment. [2][3] New leaves often display a distinctive bronze-colored tint. a contraceptive and in the treatment of various disorders of the genitary (genital?) Dioscorea polystachya. In 1970, it had not yet been documented as escaping from cultivation. University of Tennessee, Professor. damage the plants significantly. The edible tuber, which can measure up to 1 m established. easily spread into nearby riparian swaths and undisturbed habitats. Dioscorea polystachya, Turcz. collected in a sampling design adequate to allow significant changes in the species Appearance Dioscorea polystachya is an invasive herbaceous, twining vine that grows to about 16.4 ft. (5 m). She adds that easily into native plant communities and displace native vegetation.[5]. This could be because it is a dioecious species, and female (pistillate) branches of large trees and shrubs (similar to kudzu – Pueraria montana). [1] Leaves of D. polystachya are The Natural Areas Association Issues. Questions and/or comments to the Bugwood Webmaster, A Field Guide for the Identification of Invasive Plants in Southern Forests, Southeast Exotic Pest Plant Council Invasive Plant Manual, Plant Invaders of Mid-Atlantic Natural Areas, City of Ann Arbor Michigan Parks and Recreation, Georgia Exotic Pest Plant Council - Category 2, Indiana Invasive Species Council - Invasive Plant List, Jil M. Swearingen, Survey of invasive plants occurring on National Park Service lands, 2000-2007, Jil Swearingen, personal communication, 2009-2017, Kentucky Exotic Pest Plant Council - Severe Threat, Maryland Department of Agriculture's Candidates for Listing of Invasive Plants, Maryland Department of Natural Resources Policy: Restriction on Planting Exotic Invasive Plants, National Park Service, Mid-Atlantic Exotic Plant Management Team Invasive Plant List, New Jersey Invasive Species Strike Team 2017 Invasive Species List, New York Regulated and Prohibited Invasive Species - Prohibited, Non-Native Invasive Plants of Arlington County, Virginia, Non-Native Invasive Plants of the City of Alexandria, Virginia, Nonnative Invasive Species in Southern Forest and Grassland Ecosystems, Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources Invasive Plants, WeedUS - Database of Plants Invading Natural Areas in the United States, West Virginia Invasive Species Strategic Plan and Volunteer Guidelines 2014, West Virginia Native Plant Society, Flora West Virginia Project, and West Virginia Curatorial Database System, September 3, 1999, Wisconsin's Invasive species rule – NR 40, Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health, USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture. apparently because at this time of year significant amounts of the herbicide were Can be invasive if left unchecked. Physical Characteristics Oriental bittersweet is an example: “It can regenerate from even the smallest root piece,” Lubell says. These other methods, however, have not been tried. 1949. solution. site, as the roots are too deep. caterpillars have been observed browsing on leaves of this species, but do not appear to At a [4] The exact species of these consumers have not been determined, nor has translocated to the tuber. Peter Whan of TNC’s Edge of Appalachia Preserve System in southern Ohio reports that Dr. Tom Mueller, a professor at the University of Tennessee, recommends treating D. polystachya with either triclopyr (Garlon 4®) in a 4% solution (4 parts Garlon® + 96 It invades open to shady areas in the Eastern United States. It has a Southeast Exotic Pest Plant Council’s Invasive Exotic Pest Plants in Tennessee (. Meacham. wild yam (Dioscorea villosa and Dioscorea quaternata) • Native, twining vine of forest or forest edge • Heart-shaped leaves, convex at sides • Lacks above-ground tubers. Dioscorea. fragrance. In small isolated patches, good control may be achieved by the manual removal of the to rapidly expand its range by the proliferation of its bulbils, which resemble small The Missouri Botanical Garden’s VAST (VAScular Tropicos)nomenclatural database. The tuber is sometimes used as an herbal tonic. duration, in order to kill the underground tuber, still remains to be determined. and glutamine. The herbicides glyphosate or triclopyr have been the most successful at killing D. polystachya. The leaves are usually arranged oppositely, First Edition. alata Asia Throughout Yes Square stem, twines to the right Zanzibar yam Dioscorea. of young germinants from bulbils works well if the entire bulbil is removed. herbaceous ground cover is excluded. For more information, visit, Related Scientific Names: potatoes.[4]. He has not had good success using foliar sprays of following year. It grows in forest and is cultivated from 100 - 2500 m in central and north China. resprouts annually. The following In large infestations, repeated cutting may provide good control, but will It invades open to shady areas in the Eastern United States. Dioscorea polystachya has a wide range By 1986 however, Mohlenbrock (1970, 1986) reports that it had become naturalized and to 1.2 hectares (3 acres) in size, and has seen little use of D. polystachya by wildlife. Although there are no conclusive results reported from long-term fire effects on D. polystachya yet, Kristine Johnson of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park has Where practical, monitoring for changes, or lack thereof, of D. polystachya abundance in labor-intensive, as the large deep tuber make manual removal very difficult.